Today I’m going to continue to discuss the different shelters you can quickly build in a winter survival situation.
Remember: Even the simplest shelter can mean the difference between life and death.
Snow House or Igloo
In certain areas, the natives frequently use this type of shelter as hunting and fishing shelters.
They are efficient shelters but require some practice to make them properly.
Also, you must be in an area that is suitable for cutting snow blocks and have the equipment to cut them (snow saw or knife).
Construct this shelter in the same manner as for other environments; however, pile snow around the sides for insulation.
Fallen Tree Shelter
To build this shelter, find a fallen tree and dig out the snow underneath it.
The snow will not be deep under the tree.
If you must remove branches from the inside, use them to line the floor.
Dig snow out from under a suitable large tree.
It will not be as deep near the base of the tree.
Use the cut branches to line the shelter.
Use a ground sheet as overhead cover to prevent snow from falling off the tree into the shelter.
If built properly, you can have 360-degree visibility.
Here’s some basic shelter you can build rather quickly and efficiently.
Snow Cave Shelter
The snow cave shelter is a most effective shelter because of the insulating qualities of snow.
Remember that it takes time and energy to build and that you will get wet while building it.
First, you need to find a drift about 3 meters deep into which you can dig.
While building this shelter, keep the roof arched for strength and to allow melted snow to drain down the sides.
Build the sleeping platform higher than the entrance.
Separate the sleeping platform from the snow cave’s walls or dig a small trench between the platform and the wall.
This platform will prevent the melting snow from wetting you and your equipment.
This construction is especially important if you have a good source of heat in the snow cave.
Ensure the roof is high enough so that you can sit up on the sleeping platform.
Block the entrance with a snow block or other material and use the lower entrance area for cooking.
The walls and ceiling should be at least 30 centimeters thick. Install a ventilation shaft.
If you do not have a drift large enough to build a snow cave, you can make a variation of it by piling snow into a mound large enough to dig out.
Snow Trench Shelter
The idea behind this shelter is to get you below the snow and wind level and use the snow’s insulating qualities.
If you are in an area of compacted snow, cut snow blocks and use them as overhead cover.
If not, you can use a poncho or other material. Build only one entrance and use a snow block or rucksack as a door.
Snow Block and Parachute/Tarp Shelter
Use snow blocks for the sides and parachute (or a large tarp) material for overhead cover.
If snowfall is heavy, you will have to clear snow from the top at regular intervals to prevent the collapse of the material.
In a winter survival situation shelter from the elements is essential.
Without it you will not last long (usually just a couple of hours once night falls).
Here’s the basic knowledge you need if you are going to survive out in the cold.
Your environment and the equipment you have with you will determine the type of shelter you can build.
You can build shelters in wooded areas, open country, and barren areas. Wooded areas usually provide the best location, while barren areas have only snow as building material.
Wooded areas provide timber for shelter construction, wood for fire, and protection from the wind.
Note: In extreme cold, do not use metal, such as an aircraft fuselage, for shelter as the metal will conduct away from the shelter what little heat you can generate.
Shelters made from ice or snow usually require tools such as ice axes or saws.
You must also expend much time and energy to build such a shelter.
Be sure to ventilate an enclosed shelter, especially if you intend to build a fire in it.
Always block a shelter’s entrance, if possible, to keep the heat in and the wind out.
Use a rucksack or snow block. to do this.
Construct a shelter no larger than needed.
This will reduce the amount of space to heat.
A fatal error in cold weather shelter construction is making the shelter so large that it steals body heat rather than saving it.
Keep shelter space small.
Never sleep directly on the ground.
Lay down some pine boughs, grass, or other insulating material to keep the ground from absorbing your body heat.
Never fall asleep without turning out your stove or lamp.
Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from a fire burning in an unventilated shelter.
Carbon monoxide is a great danger as it is colorless and odorless.
Any time you have an open flame, it may generate carbon monoxide.
Always check your ventilation.
Even in a ventilated shelter, incomplete combustion can cause carbon monoxide poisoning.
Usually, there are no symptoms.
Unconsciousness and death can occur without warning.
Sometimes, however, pressure at the temples, burning of the eyes, headache, pounding pulse, drowsiness, or nausea may
The one characteristic, visible sign of carbon monoxide poisoning is a cherry red coloring in the tissues of the lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids.
Get into fresh air at once if you have any of these symptoms.
Over the next few days I’m going to show you some various types of field-expedient shelter you can build quickly and effeciently in a winter survival situation.