There are many survival scenarios that may lead to you having to deal with somebody who is in shock or in danger of going into shock due to injury.
The best bet is to always anticipate shock in all injured persons.
Treat all injured persons as follows, regardless of what symptoms appear:
· If the victim is conscious, place him on a level surface with the lower extremities elevated 15 to 20 centimeters.
· If the victim is unconscious, place him on his side or abdomen with his head turned to one side to prevent choking on vomit, blood, or other fluids.
· If you are unsure of the best position, place the victim perfectly flat. Once the victim is in a shock position, do not move him.
· Maintain body heat by insulating the victim from the surroundings and, in some instances, applying external heat.
· If wet, remove all the victim’s wet clothing as soon as possible and replace with dry clothing.
· Improvise a shelter to insulate the victim from the weather.
· Use warm liquids or foods, a prewarmed sleeping bag, another person, warmed water in canteens, hot rocks wrapped in clothing, or fires on either side of the victim to provide external warmth.
· If the victim is conscious, slowly administer small doses of a warm salt or sugar solution, if available.
· If the victim is unconscious or has abdominal wounds, do not give fluids by mouth.
· Have the victim rest for at least 24 hours.
· If you are a lone survivor, lie in a depression in the ground, behind a tree, or any other place out of the weather, with your head lower than your feet.
· If you are with a buddy, reassess your patient constantly.
Here’s a list of remedies for various ailments that you might face in a survival situation (Thanks to my sister Fuchsia for helping me compile this list!!)
Please Note: The following remedies are for use ONLY in a survival situation, not for routine use:
· Diarrhea. Drink tea made from the roots of blackberries and their relatives to stop diarrhea.
White oak bark and other barks containing tannin are also effective.
However, use them with caution when nothing else is available because of possible negative effects on the kidneys.
You can also stop diarrhea by eating white clay or campfire ashes.
Tea made from cowberry or cranberry or hazel leaves works too.
· Antihemorrhagics. Make medications to stop bleeding from a poultice of the puffball mushroom, from plantain leaves, or most effectively from the leaves of the common yarrow or woundwort (Achillea millefolium).
· Antiseptics. Use to cleanse wounds, sores, or rashes.
You can make them from the expressed juice from wild onion or garlic, or expressed juice from chickweed leaves or the crushed leaves of dock.
You can also make antiseptics from a decoction of burdock root, mallow leaves or roots, or white oak bark.
All these medications are for external use only.
· Fevers. Treat a fever with a tea made from willow bark, an infusion of elder flowers or fruit, linden flower tea, or elm bark decoction.
· Colds and sore throats. Treat these illnesses with a decoction made from either plantain leaves or willow bark.
You can also use a tea made from burdock roots, mallow or mullein flowers or roots, or mint leaves.
· Aches, pains, and sprains. Treat with externally applied poultices of dock, plantain, chickweed, willow bark, garlic, or sorrel.
You can also use salves made by mixing the expressed juices of these plants in animal fat or vegetable oils.
· Itching. Relieve the itch from insect bites, sunburn, or plant poisoning rashes by applying a poultice of jewelweed (Impatiens biflora) or witch hazel leaves (Hamamelis virginiana).
The jewelweed juice will help when applied to poison ivy rashes or insect stings.
It works on sunburn as well as aloe vera.
· Sedatives. Get help in falling asleep by brewing a tea made from mint leaves or passionflower leaves.
· Hemorrhoids. Treat them with external washes from elm bark or oak bark tea, from the expressed juice of plantain leaves, or from a Solomon’s seal root decoction.
· Constipation. Relieve constipation by drinking decoctions from dandelion leaves, rose hips, or walnut bark. Eating raw daylily flowers will also help.
· Worms or intestinal parasites. Using moderation, treat with tea made from tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) or from wild carrot leaves.
· Gas and cramps. Use a tea made from carrot seeds as an antiflatulent; use tea made from mint leaves to settle the stomach.
· Antifungal washes. Make a decoction of walnut leaves or oak bark or acorns to treat ringworm and athlete’s foot.
Apply frequently to the site, alternating with exposure to direct sunlight.
Here’s the second segment of Dealing With Cold Related Injuries in a Winter Survival Situation.
Today I’m giving you the basics on dehyrdration, sunburn, snow blindness and constipation in a cold weather survival situation.
When bundled up in many layers of clothing during cold weather, you may be unaware that you are losing body moisture.
Your heavy clothing absorbs the moisture that evaporates in the air.
You must drink water to replace this loss of fluid.
Your need for water is as great in a cold environment as it is in a warm environment.
One way to tell if you are becoming dehydrated is to check the color of your urine on snow.
If your urine makes the snow dark yellow, you are becoming dehydrated and need to replace body fluids.
If it makes the snow light yellow to no color, your body fluids have a more normal balance.
Exposed skin can become sunburned even when the air temperature is below freezing.
The sun’s rays reflect at all angles from snow, ice, and water, hitting sensitive areas of skin–lips, nostrils, and eyelids.
Exposure to the sun results in sunburn more quickly at high altitudes than at low altitudes.
Apply sunburn cream or lip salve to your face when in the sun.
The reflection of the sun’s ultraviolet rays off a snow-covered area causes this condition.
The symptoms of snow blindness are a sensation of grit in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes that increases with eyeball movement, red and teary eyes, and a headache that intensifies with continued exposure to light.
Prolonged exposure to these rays can result in permanent eye damage.
To treat snow blindness, bandage your eyes until the symptoms disappear.
The best way you can prevent snow blindness is by wearing sunglasses.
If you don’t have sunglasses, improvise.
Cut slits in a piece of cardboard, thin wood, tree bark, or other available material and assemble them into makesift glasses like the ones below.
Putting soot under your eyes will also help reduce shine and glare.
It is very important to relieve yourself when needed.
Do not delay because of the cold condition.
Delaying relieving yourself because of the cold, eating dehydrated foods, drinking too little liquid, and irregular eating habits can cause you to become constipated.
Although not disabling, constipation can cause some discomfort.
Increase your fluid intake to at least 2 liters above your normal 2 to 3 liters daily intake and, if available, eat fruit and other foods that will loosen the stool.
If you get stranded outside in cold weather then you not only to worry about hypothermia, but also a wide range of other cold weather related injuries.
Over the next few days my posts are going to focus on the most common cold related injuries.
Today I’ll give you the run down on Frostbite and Trench/Immersion Foot.
This injury is the result of frozen tissues.
Light frostbite involves only the skin that takes on a dull whitish pallor.
Deep frostbite extends to a depth below the skin.
The tissues become solid and immovable.
Your feet, hands, and exposed facial areas are particularly vulnerable to frostbite.
The best frostbite prevention, when you are with others, is to use the buddy system.
Check your buddy’s face often and make sure that they checks yours.
If you are alone, periodically cover your nose and lower part of your face with your mittened hand.
The following pointers will aid you in keeping warm and preventing frostbite when it is extremely cold or when you have less than adequate clothing:
· Face. Maintain circulation by twitching and wrinkling the skin on your face making faces. Warm with your hands.
· Ears. Wiggle and move your ears. Warm with your hands.
· Hands. Move your hands inside your gloves. Warm by placing your hands close to your body.
· Feet. Move your feet and wiggle your toes inside your boots.
A loss of feeling in your hands and feet is a sign of frostbite.
If you have lost feeling for only a short time, the frostbite is probably light.
Otherwise, assume the frostbite is deep.
To rewarm a light frostbite, use your hands or mittens to warm your face and ears.
Place your hands under your armpits.
Place your feet next to your buddy’s stomach.
REMEMBER: A deep frostbite injury, if thawed and refrozen, will cause more damage than a nonmedically trained person can handle.
Trench Foot and Immersion Foot
These conditions result from many hours or days of exposure to wet or damp conditions at a temperature just above freezing.
The symptoms are a sensation of pins and needles, tingling, numbness, and then pain.
The skin will initially appear wet, soggy, white, and shriveled.
As it progresses and damage appears, the skin will take on a red and then a bluish or black discoloration.
The feet become cold, swollen, and have a waxy appearance.
Walking becomes difficult and the feet feel heavy and numb.
The nerves and muscles sustain the main damage, but gangrene can occur.
In extreme cases, the flesh dies and it may become necessary to have the foot or leg amputated.
The best prevention is to keep your feet dry.
Carry extra socks with you in a waterproof packet.
You can dry wet socks against your torso (back or chest).
If possible wash your feet and put on dry socks daily.
If you live in or plan to travel to an area with poisonous snakes then if is vital that you have the knowledge to deal with snake bites.
Even under normal conditions with access to medical facilities, things can still go dramatically wrong if you take on a snake so just imagine what could happen if you are in a survival situation with no means of directly contacting medical assistance ??
It’s a scary thought so to help you guys out should you ever be in that type of situation, here’s a basic rundown on how to deal with poisonous snake bites in a survival situation.
The chance of a snakebite in a survival situation is rather small, if you are familiar with the various types of snakes and their habitats.
However, it could happen and you should know how to treat a snakebite.
Deaths from snakebites are rare.
More than one-half of the snakebite victims have little or no poisoning, and only about one-quarter develop serious systemic poisoning.
However, the chance of a snakebite in a survival situation can affect morale, and failure to take preventive measures or failure to treat a snakebite properly can result in needless tragedy.
The primary concern in the treatment of snakebite is to limit the amount of eventual tissue destruction around the bite area.
A bite wound, regardless of the type of animal that inflicted it, can become infected from bacteria in the animal’s mouth.
With nonpoisonous as well as poisonous snakebites, this local infection is responsible for a large part of the residual damage that results.
Snake venoms not only contain poisons that attack the victim’s central nervous system (neurotoxins) and blood circulation (hemotoxins), but also digestive enzymes (cytotoxins) to aid in digesting their prey.
These poisons can cause a very large area of tissue death, leaving a large open wound.
This condition could lead to the need for eventual amputation if not treated.
Shock and panic in a person bitten by a snake can also affect the person’s recovery.
Excitement, hysteria, and panic can speed up the circulation, causing the body to absorb the toxin quickly.
Signs of shock occur within the first 30 minutes after the bite.
Before you start treating a snakebite, determine whether the snake was poisonous or nonpoisonous.
Bites from a nonpoisonous snake will show rows of teeth whereas bites from a poisonous snake may have rows of teeth showing, but will have one or more distinctive puncture marks caused by fang penetration.
Symptoms of a poisonous bite may be spontaneous bleeding from the nose and anus, blood in the urine, pain at the site of the bite, and swelling at the site of the bite within a few minutes or up to 2 hours later.
Breathing difficulty, paralysis, weakness, twitching, and numbness are also signs of neurotoxic venoms.
These signs usually appear 1.5 to 2 hours after the bite.
If you determine that a poisonous snake bit an individual, take the following steps:
· Reassure the victim and keep him still.
· Set up for shock and force fluids or give an intravenous (IV).
· Remove watches, rings, bracelets, or other constricting items.
· Clean the bite area.
· Maintain an airway (especially if bitten near the face or neck) and be prepared to administer mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or CPR.
· Use a constricting band between the wound and the heart.
· Immobilize the site.
· Remove the poison as soon as possible by using a mechanical suction device or by squeezing.
DO NOT -
· Give the victim alcoholic beverages or tobacco products.
· Give morphine or other central nervous system (CNS) depressors.
· Make any deep cuts at the bite site. Cutting opens capillaries that in turn open a direct route into the blood stream for venom and infection.
· Put your hands on your face or rub your eyes, as venom may be on your hands. Venom may cause blindness.
· Break open the large blisters that form around the bite site.
Note: If medical treatment is over one hour away, make an incision (no longer than 6 millimeters and no deeper than 3 millimeter) over each puncture, cutting just deep enough to enlarge the fang opening, but only through the first or second layer of skin.
Place a suction cup over the bite so that you have a good vacuum seal.
Suction the bite site 3 to 4 times.
Use mouth suction only as a last resort and only if you do not have open sores in your mouth.
Spit the envenomed blood out and rinse your mouth with water.
This method will draw out 25 to 30 percent of the venom.
After caring for the victim as described above, take the following actions to minimize local effects:
· If infection appears, keep the wound open and clean.
· Use heat after 24 to 48 hours to help prevent the spread of local infection. Heat also helps to draw out an infection.
· Keep the wound covered with a dry, sterile dressing.
· Have the victim drink large amounts of fluids until the infection is gone.
If everything hits the fan then you definately want to keep as healthy as possible.
Sometimes though it’s not the big things that can take you down.
Intestinal Parasites and Diarrhea may not sound too threatening when compared to a horde of zombies but believe me, if you get hit with either of these and you don’t know what to do, then you can be down and out in a heartbeat.
You can usually avoid worm infestations and other intestinal parasites if you take preventive measures.
For example, never go barefoot (that includes all you Cody Lundin wannabes too!!).
The most effective way to prevent intestinal parasites is to avoid uncooked meat and raw vegetables contaminated by raw sewage or human waste used as a fertilizer.
However, should you become infested and lack proper medicine, you can use home remedies.
Keep inmind that these home remedies work on the principle of changing the environment of the gastrointestinal
The following are home remedies you could use:
· Salt water. Dissolve 4 tablespoons of salt in 1 liter of water and drink.
Do not repeat this treatment.
· Tobacco. Eat 1 to 1.5 cigarettes. The nicotine in the cigarette will kill or stun the worms long
enough for your system to pass them.
If the infestation is severe, repeat the treatment in 24 to 48 hours, but no sooner.
· Kerosene. Drink 2 tablespoons of kerosene but no more.
If necessary, you can repeat this treatment in 24 to 48 hours.
Be careful not to inhale the fumes as they may cause lung irritation.
· Hot peppers. Peppers are effective only if they are a steady part of your diet.
You can eat them raw or put them in soups or rice and meat dishes.
They create an environment that is prohibitive to parasitic attachment.
A common, debilitating ailment caused by a change of water and food, drinking contaminated water, eating spoiled food, becoming fatigued, and using dirty dishes.
You can avoid most of these causes by practicing preventive medicine.
If you get diarrhea, however, and do not have antidiarrheal medicine, one of the following treatments may be effective:
· Limit your intake of fluids for 24 hours.
· Drink one cup of a strong tea solution every 2 hours until the diarrhea slows or stops.
The tannic acid in the tea helps to control the diarrhea.
Boil the inner bark of a hardwood tree for 2 hours or more to release the tannic acid.
· Make a solution of one handful of ground chalk, charcoal, or dried bones and treated water. If you have some apple pomace or the rinds of citrus fruit, add an equal portion to the mixture to make it more effective.
Take 2 tablespoons of the solution every 2 hours until the diarrhea slows or stops.
I found a wonderful channel the other day on Youtube.
It’s ThePatriotNurse and she covers a wide range of SHTF medical topics.
Check out her channel and subscribe!
Here’s one of her great vids on the psychological impact of a SHTF situation.